When Shakespeare meets neurology: Hamlet, Ophelia and autoimmune encephalitis

Neurology can’t seem to get away from autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system. This blog has visited this topic several times before such as with the posts titled What are the dreadful autoimmune disorders that plague neurology? and What’s evolving at the cutting-edge of autoimmune neurology? The attraction of autoimmune neurological diseases lies in part in the ever-expanding spectrum of the antibodies and the challenging symptoms and syndromes they produce.

By Gentaur – Gentaur, Public Domain, Link

The fairly well-recognised ‘conventional’ antibodies are those against VGKC (Caspr 2 and LGI1), NMDA, and AMPA. There is however an almost endless list of less familiar antibodies such as those against glycine, adenylate kinase 5, thyroid, GABA-A receptors, α-enolase, neurexin-3α, dipeptidyl-peptidase-like protein 6 (DPPX), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). I am however fascinated by the group of disorders caused by antibodies to metabotropic receptors. The main antibody in this group targets the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). The clinical picture with this antibody is a form of encephalitis which may manifest with prosopagnosia (difficulty recognising faces), and with the curious Ophelia syndrome.

By Benjamin WestOwn work, Public Domain, Link

Yes, you read it correctly. Ophelia syndrome is named after Shakespeare’s unfortunate Danish maiden, and it was first described by Dr. Ian Carr whose daughter, at the age of 15, developed progressive loss of memory, depression, hallucinations, and bizarre behaviour. These symptoms aptly describe Ophelia’s deluded and obsessional attraction to the equally deluded and murderous Hamlet. Ophelia syndrome is almost always associated with Hodgkins lymphoma and affects young people.

By V from Coventry, UK – Hamlet, CC BY 2.0, Link

Thankfully Ophelia syndrome is a relatively mild disease without the Shakespearean tragic ending because it has a good outcome if recognised and treated.

Why not explore all the autoimmune neurological disorders on neurochecklists.

The emerging research boosting Parkinson’s disease treatment

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is probably the most iconic neurological disorder. It has diverse manifestations, typical of many neurological diseases. PD is a result of brain dopamine deficiency, and its clinical picture is dominated by motor symptoms- tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia (slowing of movements). It however also manifests with a variety of non-motor symptoms which rival the motor symptoms in their impact. PD is responsive to treatment with several oral medications such as levodopa, infusions such as apomorphine, and interventions such as deep brain stimulation (DBS).


Regardless of the intervention used, PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that grinds, slowly and steadily, along a chronic progressive course. This often manifests with disabling features such as freezing, hallucinations, and dyskinesias (drug-induced writhing movements). These symptoms creep or barge in unannounced, challenging the wits of the neurologist, and pushing the resolve of patients and their families to the limit. What hope does research offer to smooth the journey for people with PD? Here are my top 7.

1. Increasing evidence for the benefit of exercise


OK, not every advance has to be groundbreaking. It is self-evident that exercise is beneficial for many chronic disorders, but proving this has been difficult…until now that is. Researchers, publishing in the journal Movement Disorders, looked at the benefits of exercise on cognitive function in PD, and their verdict is-yes, it works! The study, titled Exercise improves cognition in Parkinson’s disease: The PRET-PD randomized, clinical trial, comes with strings attached- you have to keep at the exercise for 2 years! A review  in the same journal indicates that exercise also improves mood and sleep in PD.

2. Lithium for treatment of dyskinesias

By Dnn87 - Self-photographed, CC BY 3.0, Link
By Dnn87Self-photographed, CC BY 3.0, Link

Dyskinesias are abnormal, fidgety movements that develop as side effects of the drugs used to treat PD. Most people with dyskinesias are not overly concerned about the movements because the alternative, disabling freezing and immobility, is worse. Dyskinesias are however energy-sapping, and are distressing for family members. Amantadine is one drug neurologists add-on to improve dyskinesias, but many people do not tolerate or benefit from this. The suggestion that lithium may help dyskinesias is therefore welcome news. The report comes from a study in mice reported in the journal Brain Research titled The combination of lithium and l-Dopa/Carbidopa reduces MPTP-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs). A long way to go yet, but hope.

3. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

By MistyHora at the English language Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link
By MistyHora at the English language Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is playing an increasing role in neurology as I discussed in a previous post titled Are magnets transforming neurology? It is almost inevitable therefore that TMS will crop up in attempts to treat PD. And so it has, going by a meta-analysis and systematic review published in JAMA Neurology. The paper is titled Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor symptoms in Parkinson disease. The reviewers passed the judgement that repetitive TMS improves motor symptoms in PD. Perhaps time to invest in TMS!

4. MRI guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS)

By Frmir - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link
By FrmirOwn work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

MRI guided ultrasound (MRgFUS) is not new to medicine. It is used, for example, in the treatment of solid tumours and uterine fibroids. It is however innovative in the treatment of tremor and dyskinesia in PD. This came to my attention via a press release from University of Maryland titled Metabolic Imaging Center uses new ultrasound technology to target deep structures of the brain. MRgFUS non-invasively transmits ultrasound waves to the globus pallidus, one of the deep brain structures involved in PD. How this works still remains fuzzy to me, but it is exciting enough to generate a lot of research activity with articles such as MRI guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for moderate-to-severe tremor in Parkinson’s disease in the journal Parkinson’s Disease; and Unilateral magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound pallidotomy for Parkinson disease, published in Neurology. Watch out, deep brain stimulation!

5. Nasal mucosal grafting

Big Nose Strikes Again. Bazusa on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/bazusa/260401471
Big Nose Strikes Again. Bazusa on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/bazusa/260401471

What a great thing, the blood-brain barrier, protecting the brain from all the bugs and toxins running amok in the bloodstream. This iron-clad fence unfortunately also effectively keeps out, or limits the entrance of, many beneficial drugs which need to get to the brain to act. As with all borders however, there are always people ready to break through, without leaving any tracks behind. And the people in this case are neurosurgeons who have successfully bypassed the blood brain barrier, and safely ‘transported’ PD drugs in to the brain. They did this by removing a portion of the blood brain barrier of mice, and replaced it with a piece of the tissue which lines the inside of the nose, a procedure called nasal mucosal grafting. They then delivered glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a protein that treats PD in mice, across the graft. The neurosurgeons explained all this in their paper titled Heterotopic mucosal grafting enables the delivery of therapeutic neuropeptides across the blood brain barrier. You may however prefer the simpler version from the Boston Business Journal (can you believe it!) titled A new way to treat Parkinson’s disease may be through your nose. It will however take time before human trials of nasal mucosal grafting…this is science after all, not science fiction!

6. Fetal stem cell transplantation

Marmoset embryonic stem cells forming neurons. NIH Image gallery on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/nihgov/27406746806
Marmoset embryonic stem cells forming neurons. NIH Image gallery on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/nihgov/27406746806

It doesn’t seem too long ago when all ethical hell broke loose because some scientists were transplanting fetal tissue into human brains. I thought the clamour had put this procedure into the locker, never to be resurrected. Apparently not; fetal stem cell transplantation (SCT) is back, reminiscent of Arnold Schwarzenegger in the Terminator films. Learn more of this comeback in this piece from New Scientist titled Fetal cells injected into a man’s brain to cure his Parkinson’s. The work is from Roger Barker‘s team at the University of Cambridge, and they are planning a big study into this named TRANSNEURO. Watch this space

7. Pluripotent stem cell transplantation

By Judyta Dulnik - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Link
By Judyta DulnikOwn work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Link

The future of stem cell transplantation probably lies with pluripotent, rather than fetal cells. The idea is to induce skin cells, called fibroblasts, to transform into dopamine-producing cells. Fibroblasts can do this because they are pluripotent cells; that is they are capable of becoming whatever type of cells you want, so long as you know the magic words. In this case, the words are likely to be the transcription factors Mash1, Nurr1 and Lmx1a. Beatsopen sesame‘, and surely less controversial than fetal cells. Researchers are taking this procedure very seriously indeed, setting out ground rules in articles such as Direct generation of functional dopaminergic neurons from mouse and human fibroblasts. This was published in the journal Nature, but you may prefer the easier read in New Scientist titled Brain cells made from skin could treat Parkinson’s. But don’t get too excited…pluripotent stem cell transplantation is barely at the starting line yet.


Eu Sou. jeronimo sanz on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeronimooo/12069638595
Eu Sou. jeronimo sanz on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeronimooo/12069638595

There is so much more going on in the field of Parkinson’s disease to cover in one blog post. I will review neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease in a coming post. In the meantime, here are links to 12 interesting articles and reviews on the future of PD:



Mozart and seizures? The links between epilepsy and music

An odd connection you may say but here are quite a few things that link epilepsy with music. lepsy. The first is the therapeutic effect of on epilepsy. This has been termed ‘The Mozart Effect‘ based on studies which report that listening to Mozart reduces epileptic brain discharges.

This however seems at odds with the known fact that epilepsy may be triggered by music. Music is one of several triggers of epilepsy. People with this musicogenic epilepsy may become frightened of music, a concept called musicophobia. This article in Scientific American gives an example where the music of Sean Paul is the consistent trigger for someone’s seizures. In another anecdote from NME, a Ne Yo song is the culprit.

By CLASSICNEYO - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Link
By CLASSICNEYOOwn work, CC BY-SA 4.0, Link

Finally, music may be a manifestation of epilepsy. These present as musical hallucinations.

To explore these and other musical concepts and epilepsy further, check out Music and the neurologist: a historical perspective from the Annals of the New York Academy of Science.