Keeping up with the latest practical guidelines in neurology

Neurologists breathe guidelines. And they churn them out at a breathtaking pace. It is extremely difficult keeping up with what’s in, what’s out, and what’s back in again! Often the new guidelines add nothing new, or the important points are buried in sheafs of text justifying the guidelines.

But we can’t get away from them. How then do neurologists keep up, short of becoming paranoid? By becoming obsessive! In developing neurochecklists I had no idea keeping up with the guidelines would be a challenging task because they are released in quick succession. I have looked back to see which are the latest practical guidelines, released in the last 12 months or so. Here they are by disease… but be quick before the guideline-masters revise them…again!

Epilepsy

The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the American Epilepsy Society published their 1st seizure management guidelines in Neurology. Among the key recommendations are to inform patients of a 2-year recurrence risk of 21-45%, and that a nocturnal seizure is among the usual culprits that increase the risk. The vexing question of whether to treat a 1st unprovoked seizure remains that-vexing.

Not to be outdone, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) released it’s evidence-based guidelines and recommendations for the management of infantile seizures. Published in Epilepsia in late 2015, it shows that Levetiracetam is tops for both focal and generalised seizures. It also confirmed the  hard-earned place of Stiripentol alongside Valproate and Clobazam for Dravet syndrome. It is open access so well-worth a detailed look.

 

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)

Steroids are now standard treatment in Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy (DMD). A recent practice guideline update on corticosteroids in Duchenne’s highlights this, and it also indicates the strength of evidence for the different benefits. There is Level B evidence that steroids improve strength and lung function, and Level C for  delaying scoliosis and cardiomyopathy. Enough to encourage any doubters out there.

Facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD)

Not one I thought had guidelines, but this FSHD diagnosis and management guidelines turned out to be quite useful. The guidelines address four key areas-diagnosis, predictors of severity, surveillance for complications, and treatment. And if you like flow charts, there is an excellent one here. A lot of helpful tips here for example, subjects with large D4Z4 gene deletions are more prone to earlier and more severe disability, and these patients should be reviewed by a retinal specialist.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) 

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most shifty conditions when it comes to guidelines, both diagnostic and management. Take the latest NICE MS guidelines, 39 pages long. All sensible stuff mind you, with time-restricted targets such as 6 weeks for a post-diagnosis follow-up, and 2 weeks to treat a relapse. Mind you, just to keep neurologists on their toes!

MS diagnosis and follow up is often the game of counting lesions on MRI scans. The question of what to count, and when to do so, is addressed in the recent MAGNIMS MS consensus guidelines. More recommendations than guidelines, these did not challenge the sacrosanct MacDonald criteria for dissemination in time, but tinker with dissemination in place. They suggest, for example, that optic nerve lesions be counted. The MAGNIMS consensus guidelines on the use of MRI goes on to stipulate when and how to count lesions throughout the course of MS. Not an easy bedtime read.

Not far behind MAGNIMS, the Association of British Neurologists (ABN) released their revised 2015 guidelines for prescribing disease-modifying treatments in MS. The guidelines classify DMT’s by efficacyAlemtuzumab and Natalizumab triumphing here. We also learn which DMTs to use in different patient groups.

Finally, Neurology published guidelines on rehabilitation in MS. Unfortunately there are quite a few qualifying ‘possibles‘ and ‘probables‘ which water down the strength of most of the recommendations. But what else do we have to go by?

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)

The Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry (JNNP) published a review of CIDP in February 2015. It covers everything ”from bench to bedside”, but heavily skewed towards the former. It confirms that CIDP is a “spectrum of related conditions”, great news for splitters, and disappointing for lumpers. I personally struggle with the concepts of sensory and focal CIDP, have never diagnosed CANOMAD, but never tire of listening to Michael Lunn on VEGF, or be fascinated by the links between CIDP and POEMS syndrome. The review, an editors choice, is open access, and is backed by the authority of Richard Hughes; you really have no choice but to read it!

Unruptured intracranial aneurysms

The America Stroke Association (ASA) published new guidelines on management of unruptured aneurysms in a June 2015 issue of Stroke. It gives a comprehensive review of cerebral aneurysms, addressing the “presentation, natural history, epidemiology, risk factors, screening, diagnosis, imaging and outcomes from surgical and endovascular treatment“. It also suffices for a review article. Some recommendations are easily overlooked such as counsel against smoking and monitor for hypertension (evidence level B). Some important recommendations however have weak evidence, for example surveillance imaging after endovascular treatment (evidence level C).

The guidelines still advocate screening if there are 2 or more affected first degree family members. (I confess my threshold is lower than this). The extensive list of at-risk conditions for aneurysms include the usual suspects such as adult polycystic kidney disease and fibromuscular dysplasia. New culprits (at least to me) are microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, Noonan syndrome, and α-glucosidase deficiency.

 

CC BY-SA 3.0, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=36822177
CC BY-SA 3.0, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=36822177
Stroke 

The American Stroke Association (ASA), along with the American Heart Association (AHA), released their guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage in 2015. There are several additional recommendations to the previous guidelines; these include the recommendation to control hypertension immediately from onset to prevent recurrent haemorrhage.

The ASA/AHA also published their updated guidelines on endovascular stroke therapy in 2015. To to show how important this treatment has become, the debate now is whether to use thrombectomy alone, or after thrombolysis. And the winner is…to use thrombectomy after thrombolysis. The eligibility checklist for endovascular therapy with a stent retriever is thankfully quite short.

Concussion and traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Concussion is a very topical issue, what with Will Smith as Bennett Omalu in the recent movie aptly titled… Concussion. I have previously posted on the effect of celebrities on neurology, but this here is the serious stuff.  Unlike most guidelines, these clinical practice guidelines for concussion/mild traumatic brain injury and persistent symptoms is not open access. Published in Brain Injury, I could only peruse the abstract, and this mentions 93 recommendations! Tempting however is it’s breadth, addressing everything from post-traumatic headache to sleep disturbance; from vestibular to visual dysfunction.

Friedreich's ataxia (FA)

OK, I confess these guideline are from 2014, a bit dated. But how often does one think ‘guidelines’ in the context of Friedreich’s ataxia. Furthermore, this Consensus clinical management guidelines for Friedreich ataxia is open access! Published in Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, they are the product of 39 experts, and consist of 146 recommendations! They cover everything from sleep, spasticity, and scoliosis to diabetes, dysphagia, and dysarthria. I bet you don’t enquire about restless legs syndrome (RLS) in your patients with FA!

Motor neurone disease (MND)

And hot off the press are the NICE guidelines on motor neurone disease (MND). One thing to mention is its sheer volume- 319 pages long, and containing 123 recommendations! The guidelines targets every aspect of MND care, and it’s futile trying to master it all. Each specialist can really only pick and choose which aspect is relevant to them. There is a lot of balancing of clinical and economic benefits, and this is reflected by questions such as “what are the most clinically- and cost-effective methods of maintaining nutrition…?” The guidelines address several long-standing issues such as the clinically appropriate timing for placing PEG tubes. Whether they add anything really new is however debatable.

 

Do you have a recent guideline or update to share? Please leave a comment.

The art of spinning catchy titles

How often is one turned off by a paper with a very convoluted or poorly worded title. One example I came across is The dangerousness of persons with the Othello syndrome. There are many other examples out there.

Fair use, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1629138
Fair use, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1629138

 

The focus here is however on articles with titles that not only reflect the topic, but play wonderfully with the words. This paper from Neurology is a classical example: Normal pressure hydrocephalus: how often does the diagnosis hold water?

 

By Vimont, Engelmann /Scan by NLM - National Library of Medicine (Call No. BF V765t 1835 OV2), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3750904
By Vimont, Engelmann /Scan by NLM – National Library of Medicine (Call No. BF V765t 1835 OV2), Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3750904

 

What about this catchy title on absence epilepsy from Epilepsy Currents– The current state of absence epilepsy: can we have your attention?

 

What about this, alluding to the energy production role of mitochondria, from the Journal of Internal Medicine:  Batteries not included: diagnosis and management of mitochondrial disease. Surely alluding to the energy-generating function of mitochondria.

Vintage Arizona State University mitochondrial model. Gregory Han on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/typefiend/6819392279
Vintage Arizona State University mitochondrial model. Gregory Han on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/typefiend/6819392279

And this one is from Acta Neuropathologica Communications titled The prion hypothesis in Parkinson’s disease: Braak to the future. This is a reference to the Braak hypothesis which describes the spread of Parkinson’s disease pathology across the brain over time. Could prion diseases be responsible for Parkinson’s disease? For a clue, see my blog post, What are the links between prion diseases and parkinsonian disorders.

By Visanji, Naomi P., Patricia L. Brooks, Lili-Naz Hazrati, and Anthony E. Lang. - Visanji, Naomi P., Patricia L. Brooks, Lili-Naz Hazrati, and Anthony E. Lang. “The Prion Hypothesis in Parkinson’s Disease: Braak to the Future.” Acta Neuropathologica Communications 1, no. 1 (May 8, 2013): 2. doi:10.1186/2051-5960-1-2. http://www.actaneurocomms.org/content/1/1/2., CC BY 2.5, Link
By Visanji, Naomi P., Patricia L. Brooks, Lili-Naz Hazrati, and Anthony E. Lang. – Visanji, Naomi P., Patricia L. Brooks, Lili-Naz Hazrati, and Anthony E. Lang. “The Prion Hypothesis in Parkinson’s Disease: Braak to the Future.” Acta Neuropathologica Communications 1, no. 1 (May 8, 2013): 2. doi:10.1186/2051-5960-1-2. http://www.actaneurocomms.org/content/1/1/2., CC BY 2.5, Link
And from the journal Neurology again comes Blowing the whistle on sports concussions: will the risk of dementia change the game?  This, of course, is to do with the increasing recognition that repeated head injuries in athletes result in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. But is the sporting listening? You may wish to revisit my previous blog post on this, Will Smith and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
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And from Brain comes this commentary titled Seizure prediction: making mileage on the long and winding road. It is not yet open access, and the synopsis doesn’t let the cat out of the bag. It is difficult therefore to establish what links the catchy title to the text. But it is still a work of art.
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And finally, from Muscle and Nerve, comes Small fiber neuropathy: getting bigger! This is a review article highlighting the growing problem of a disorder with a self-deprecating name. Time to take notice!

By Dan Bennett - Flickr: marmaduke, CC BY 2.0, Link
By Dan BennettFlickr: marmaduke, CC BY 2.0, Link

Perhaps you have a few examples of your own to share.

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