The 60 most iconic neurological disorders

Neurology is a vast specialty that encompasses a staggering array of diseases and syndromes. Most neurological disorders are unsung and prefer anonymity to fame. These masquerades roam under the radar and stalk neurology wards and clinics incognito. We will expose them in a coming blog post. Other nervous system maladies are however prominent, and they brazenly boast of their prevalence, their notoriety, or their distinctive names. These are the diseases which have come to symbolise neurology and to define its practitioners. Without much ado, and in no specific order, here is my list of the top 60 iconic neurological disorders.

Neural Connections in the Human Brain. Image Editor on Flickr.


Carpal tunnel syndrome

Cluster headache


Hemifacial spasm

Alzheimer’s disease

By uncredited - Images from the History of Medicine (NLM) [1], Public Domain,

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS)

Cervical dystonia

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS)

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)

Behcet’s disease

By Republic2011 - Own work, CC BY 3.0,
By Republic2011Own work, CC BY 3.0,

Brain tumours

 Cerebral palsy (CP)

Essential tremor

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD)

Bell’s palsy

By, CC BY 4.0,

Brachial neuralgia

Kennedy disease


Peroneal neuropathy

Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT)

By, CC BY 4.0,

Leber optic neuropathy (LHON)

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP)

Transient global amnesia (TGA)

Parkinson’s disease (PD)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

By Unknown -, Public Domain,,

Hashimoto encephalopathy

Myasthenia gravis (MG)

Stiff person syndrome (SPS)

Trigeminal neuralgia

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)

By G._Duchenne.jpg: unknown/anonymousderivative work: PawełMM (talk) - G._Duchenne.jpg, Public Domain,
By G._Duchenne.jpg:


Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH)


Restless legs syndrome (RLS)

Friedreich’s ataxia (FA)

By Unknown -, Public Domain,,

Tension-type headache (TTH)

Korsakoff syndrome

McArdle’s disease

Multiple sclerosis (MS)

Horner’s syndrome

By Unknown -, Public Domain,,

Motor neurone disease (MND)

Neurofibromatosis (NF)


Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)

Huntington’s disease (HD)


Inclusion body myositis (IBM)



Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS)

By J3D3 - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
By J3D3Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Multiple system atrophy (MSA)


Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)

Wernicke’s encephalopathy

By J.F. Lehmann, Muenchen - IHM, Public Domain,

Peripheral neuropathy (PN)


Myotonic dystrophy

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)

Wilson’s disease

By Carl Vandyk (1851–1931) - [No authors listed] (July 1937). "S. A. Kinnier Wilson". Br J Ophthalmol 21 (7): 396–97. PMC: 1142821., Public Domain,
S. A. Kinnier Wilson“.


To explore these and many other comprehensive neurology checklists…

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