Is blood monitoring useful for patients on IVIg therapy?

Routine blood monitoring in maintenance immunoglobulin treatment of inflammatory neuropathy: Is it clinically relevant? Keh R, Kahlil A, Nihoyannopoulos L, et al. J Neurol Sci 2020; 408:116527. Abstract BACKGROUND: Pre-treatment screening for IgA deficiency and close monitoring of full blood count(FBC) and renal function is recommended with intravenous immunoglobulin(IVIg) therapy in neurological diseases. AIMS: To […]

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What features predict poor outcome following shunt surgery for NPH?

Negative predictors of shunt surgery outcome in normal pressure hydrocephalus. Bådagård H, Braun M, Nilsson D, Stridh L, Virhammar J. Acta Neurol Scand 2020; 141:219-225. Abstract OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) and vascular comorbidity increases with age. It has not been clarified if high age and vascular disease are negative predictors of […]

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The cutting-edge applications of ultrasound in neurology

Imaging is central to neurological practice. It doesn’t take much to tempt a neurologist to ‘order’ or ‘request’ an MRI or a CT. In appropriate circumstances the imaging is a DAT scan, and with a bit more savvy, exciting imaging modalities such as amyloid scans and tau PET scans. In the playpen of the neurologist, the more ‘high tech’ the imaging technology, the more cutting-edge it feels-even if it doesn’t make much of a difference to the patient. Ultrasound on the other hand is the mongrel of imaging technologies. Too simple, too cheap, too available, too unsophisticated-not better than good old X-rays. It is safe to assume that the pen of the neurologist hardly ever ticks the ultrasound box. What for?
prd brain scan. Patrick Denker on Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/pdenker/74684051
And yet, ultrasound has an established, even if poorly appreciated, place in neurological imaging. It is perhaps best known for its usefulness in assessing carpal tunnel syndrome at the wrist. But, for the neurologist, CTS is sorted out by wrist splints, steroid injections, and decompression surgery-forgetting that there may just be a ganglion, a cyst, or a lipoma lurking in there. Ultrasound also has a place in the assessment of muscle disorders, picking up anomalies and detecting distinctive muscle disease patterns. The only problem is that, even when radiologists and neurologists put their heads together, they struggle to understand what the patterns actually mean. And since the first pass of this blog post, I was reminded of the place of ultrasound-guided lumbar puncture in improving the safety and accuracy of this otherwise blind procedure. And there are even guidelines to help takers. My guess is that most neurologists prefer the thrill of hit-and-miss that goes with conventional LP. For many reasons therefore, the ultrasound box remains un-ticked.
By RSatUSZ – PACS UniversitätsSpitalZürich, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11272585
Despite these limitations, the place of ultrasound remains entrenched in neurological practice. Indeed, ultrasound has been spreading its wings to exotic places, broadening its range, and asserting its presence. Perhaps it is time to reconsider the humble ultrasound, and to catch up with what it has been up to. Here then are 3 emerging roles of ultrasound in neurology

Therapeutic ultrasound

The role of ultrasound in treatment is reviewed in the excellent paper in Nature Neurology titled Ultrasound treatment of neurological diseases-current and emerging applications. And the emphasis is on trans-cranial MR-guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS). tcMRgFUS is making waves in the treatment of essential tremor (ET), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and central pain. The benefit for PD is already filtering out into the popular press such as this article in STAT titled New treatment offers some hope for an unshakable tremorUltrasound is also rapidly emerging as an option in the ablation of brain tumours, and in the treatment of stroke (sonothrombolysis). 

By Images are generated by Life Science Databases(LSDB). – from Anatomography, website maintained by Life Science Databases(LSDB).You can get this image through URL below. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7845026

Drug delivery into the brain

The blood brain barrier is a rigidly selective barricade against most things that venture to approach the brain-even if their intentions are noble. This is a huge impediment to getting drugs to reach the brain where they are badly needed. It is therefore humbling that it is the simple ultrasound that is promising to smuggle benevolent drugs across the blockade to aid afflicted brains. This was reported in the journal Science Translational Medicine, and the article is titled Clinical trial of blood-brain barrier disruption by pulsed ultrasound. The trial subjects were people with the notorious brain tumour, glioblastoma. They were injected with their conventional chemotherapy drugs, delivered along with microbubbles. The blood brain barrier was then repeatedly ‘pelted’ with pulsed ultrasound waves; this seem to leapfrog the drugs into the brain in greater than usual concentrations, enough to do a much better job. This surely makes films such as Fantastic Voyage and Inner Space not far-off pipe-dreams.

Bubbles. Jeff Kubina on Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/kubina/153871892

Treatment of coma

Some of the emerging neurological applications of ultrasound are even more Sci-Fi than pulsed ultrasound. And a sign of this Sci-Neuro world is this report titled UCLA scientists use ultrasound to jump-start a man’s brain after coma. One is tempted to dismiss this as ‘fake news’ but it is a proper case report, in a proper scientific journal, Brain Stimulation, and with a proper scientific title, Non-Invasive Ultrasonic Thalamic Stimulation in Disorders of Consciousness after Severe Brain Injury: A First-in-Man Report. By targeting ultrasounds to the subject’s thalamus, the authors assert, the subject just woke up (and presumably asked for a hot cup of tea!). A word of caution is however needed; the authors rightly point out that it may have all been…coincidental!

The awakening (arm). Jeff Kubina on Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/kubina/153871892

Ultrasound is clearly humble no more.

Big ambition trumps humble beginnings.

Do seizures at stroke onset increase the risks of thrombolysis?

TRISP Collaborators. Intravenous thrombolysis for suspected ischemic stroke with seizure at onset. Polymeris AA, Curtze S, Erdur H, et al; TRISP collaborators Ann Neurol 2019; 86:770-779. Abstract OBJECTIVE: Seizure at onset (SaO) has been considered a relative contraindication for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke, although this appraisal is not evidence based. Here, we investigated the prognostic significance of SaO […]

via Do seizures at stroke onset increase the risks of thrombolysis? — Neurochecklists Blog

Is Parkinsonism a common feature of essential tremor?

Parkinsonism in essential tremor cases: a clinicopathological study Rajput AH, Rajput EF, Bocking SM, Auer RN, Rajput A. Mov Disord 2019; 34:1031-1040. Abstract BACKGROUND: Essential tremor and Parkinson’s syndrome are two common movement disorders that may co-occur in some individuals. There is no diagnostic neuropathology for essential tremor, but in PD and other Parkinson’s syndrome variants, the neuropathology is […]

via Is Parkinsonism a common feature of essential tremor? — Neurochecklists Blog

60 updated practical neurology checklists

This is just a short blog to let you know that within last last few weeks, we have updated and revised hundreds of our checklists. This in keeping with our tradition of monitoring the neurological literature, and being in step with all developments in the field. To give you a feel, here are 60 of our […]

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What are the emerging treatments for neurofibromatosis?

Neurofibromatosis (NF) is one of the major neurocutaneous disorders neurologists see. These are disorders which primarily affect the nervous system and have prominent skin manifestations. Also known as phakomatoses, they are typified by abnormal growths and a variety of cancers. They include well-defined conditions such as tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS), von Hipple Lindau disease (VHL), schwannomatosis, and the various PTEN hamartoma tumour syndromes. There are two types of neurofibromatosis, NF1 and NF2. NF2 is characterised by vestibular schwannomas, tumours arising from the sheath that encases the nerve that control balance, and by meningiomas, tumours of the covering of the brain.

By RadsWiki – RadsWiki, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3520114

NF1, also known as von Recklinghausen disease is, by far, the commoner form of neurofibromatosis. It is readily recognised on the skin by the frequently multiple and disfiguring nerve tumours called neurofibromas. Other benign skin lesions include the coffee-coloured skin lesions aptly called cafe-au-lait spots, armpit lesions called axillary freckles, and small lesions on the iris of the eyes called Lisch nodules. More sinister skin lesions called malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST) are, as the name implies, capable of spreading to other organs such as the lungs. Other sinister tumours in NF1 include gliomas of the brain and optic nerve, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) of the gut, and rhabdomyosarcomas of bone.

By Seiradcruz at English Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

What can neurologists do for people with neurofibromatosis? Traditionally, nothing much apart from watchful waiting. We would monitor for the development of tumours by regular surveillance MRI scans of the brain and spine, and refer people with painful, compressive, or malignant lesions to the plastic surgeons or neurosurgeons to do what they do best, taking things out. Surgery may work fine for simple neurofibromas, but it is less practical for the complex or plexiform type. Thankfully, many neuroscientists are working hard, looking at different approaches to managing neurofibromas. To illustrate, below are 5 emerging treatments for neurofibromatosis. 

Bởi Klaus D. Peter, Gummersbach, GermanySelf-photographed, CC BY 3.0 de, Liên kết

 

Selumetinib

In a 2016 paper in the New England Journal of Medicine, Eva Dombi and colleagues investigated the effect of selumetinib, an oral inhibitor of an enzyme called MAPK kinase (MEK) in 24 children with NF1. The paper, titled Activity of selumetinib in neurofibromatosis type 1-related plexiform neurofibromas, showed that selumetinib reduced the size of neurofibromas, and there was evidence that it improved pain and reduced disfigurement.

By Dimitrios MalamosOwn work, CC BY 4.0, Link

Imatinib

In a 2012 paper published in Lancet Oncology, Kent Robertson and colleagues, investigated the potential benefit of Imitanib, an inhibitor of the enzyme tyrosine kinase, in 36 people with NF1. The paper, titled Imitatinib mesylate for plexiform neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1: a phase 2 trial, showed at least a 20% reduction in one or more plexiform neurofibromas.

By Department of Pathology, Calicut Medical College – Calicut Medical College, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=36652650

Sirolimus

Brian Weiss and colleagues investigated the effect of sirolimus, an inhibitor of mTOR complex 1, in 46 people with NF1 and published their findings in the journal Neuro-Onclology. The paper, titled Sirolimus for progressive neurofibromatosis type 1-associated plexiform neurofibromas, demonstrated that sirolimus prolonged the time to progression (TTP) of plexiform neurofibromas by about 4 months. A modest effect they admit, but nevertheless, a hope-raising effect.

By ajc3527 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=59202851

Everolimus

Everolimus is already making waves in the treatment of various lesions in tuberous sclerosis complex, and it is not surprising that it has turned up here. In their paper titled Treatment of disfiguring cutaneous lesions in neurofibromatosis-1 with everolimus, published in the journal Drugs in R&D, John Slopis and colleagues reported that everolimus significantly reduced the surface volume of NF1 lesions, including plexiform neurofibromas. The authors were however cautious, calling for future studies to confirm these results. Unfortunately, one such study in the Journal of Investigational Dermatology poured cold water on the reported benefit of everolimus. The paper was titled Absence of Efficacy of Everolimus in Neurofibromatosis 1-Related Plexiform Neurofibromas: Results from a Phase 2a Trial. Hopefully future studies will be more favourable!

By MarinaVladivostokOwn work, CC0, Link

Pegylated interferon alfa-2b

Regina Jakacki and colleagues looked at the effect of pegylated interferon alfa-2b on plexiform neurofibromas and found a greater than doubling of their time to progression (TTP). Their paper is published in Neuro-Oncology, and it is titled Phase II trial of pegylated interferon alfa-2b in young patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and unresectable plexiform neurofibromas. As the authors studied a reasonable number of subjects, 84, and as the trial was placebo-controlled trial, this result is unlikely to be overturned by future trials…but only time will tell.

By Nevit Dilmen – Self created from PDB entry with Cn3D Data Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1308980

 

Therefore is clearly enough justification for hope in the search for a cure for neurofibromatosis.

Rapid checklist: COVID-19 and neurological disorders

This is another follow-up to our 2 recent posts: Coronavirus COVID-19 Checklists COVID-19: multiple sclerosis (MS) recommendations We have just now added a fourth COVID checklist: COVID-19: neurological disorders recommendations Watch out as we post further essential checklists and updates

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