6 exciting neuroscience discoveries that will shape neurology

Allan Ajifo on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/125992663@N02/14601014695
Allan Ajifo on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/125992663@N02/14601014695

 

The brain is a mystery and that is why neurologists find it fascinating. The more we know, the more it tantalises us with its hidden gems. Great neurologists have waxed lyrical about the ability of the brain to elude all efforts to fully understand it. Santiago Ramon y Cajal for instance says:

“The brain is a world

consisting of a number of unexplored continents

and great stretches of unknown territory” 

Non-neurologists are similarly awed by the brain. Emerson M. Pugh for example says:

“If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it,

we would be so simple that we couldn’t”

Neuroscience and neuroanatomy are at the forefront of exploring this great unknown; the research output from these fields is mind-boggling (pardon the intended pun). But But which recent findings are most likely to change neurological practice in the near future? Here are my top 6.

1. Newly discovered brain lymphatic system

"Gray602" by Henry Vandyke Carter - Henry Gray (1918) Anatomy of the Human Body (See "Book" section below)Bartleby.com: Gray's Anatomy, Plate 602. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray602.png#/media/File:Gray602.png
“Gray602” by Henry Vandyke Carter – Henry Gray (1918) Anatomy of the Human Body (See “Book” section below)Bartleby.com: Gray’s Anatomy, Plate 602. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray602.png#/media/File:Gray602.png

A recent report that researchers have discovered a previously unknown lymphatic system in the brain is to say the least shocking. To imagine that these lymphatic channels have eluded the sharpest eyes and most focussed microscopes for centuries; goes to show how mysterious the brain indeed is. Why has it stayed undiscovered for so long? Apparently because it is tucked behind a major blood vessel! Hiding in plain sight says one review article. The discovery is so important that one article says it will have the scientists rewriting textbooks. 

The finding however raises hope of better treatments for some neurological diseases. Because the lymphatic system is closely linked to the immune system, multiple sclerosis (MS) is one potential beneficiary of this discovery. Because lymphatics also act as drainage systems, there are implications for conditions such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Hopefully this brain lymphatic system could be manipulated to clear the accumulated abnormal proteins that cause AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

2. Newly discovered brain networks

"White Matter Connections Obtained with MRI Tractography" by Xavier Gigandet et. al. - Gigandet X, Hagmann P, Kurant M, Cammoun L, Meuli R, et al. (2008) Estimating the Confidence Level of White Matter Connections Obtained with MRI Tractography. PLoS ONE 3(12): e4006. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004006. Licensed under CC BY 2.5 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:White_Matter_Connections_Obtained_with_MRI_Tractography.png#/media/File:White_Matter_Connections_Obtained_with_MRI_Tractography.png
“White Matter Connections Obtained with MRI Tractography” by Xavier Gigandet et. al. – Gigandet X, Hagmann P, Kurant M, Cammoun L, Meuli R, et al. (2008) Estimating the Confidence Level of White Matter Connections Obtained with MRI Tractography. PLoS ONE 3(12): e4006. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004006. Licensed under CC BY 2.5 via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:White_Matter_Connections_Obtained_with_MRI_Tractography.png#/media/File:White_Matter_Connections_Obtained_with_MRI_Tractography.png

 

The brains extensive connections is one of its enduring and fascinating mysteries. The winding fibers and tracts, meandering and looping around each other, demonstrate the brains complexity. As soon as we think we have grasped it all along comes a discovery that causes a paradigm shift. This is illustrated by the report of the discovery of a new brain network involved in memory processing. This Parietal Memory Network (PMN), in the brains left hemisphere, responds differentially to novel and to older information. This may have relevance to cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). For the more technical details of the network the paper is in the journal Trends in Cognitive Neuroscience.

3. Newly discovered brain connection

Synapse by Peter Morgan on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/moogan/5997439279
Synapse by Peter Morgan on Flikr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/moogan/5997439279

 

In a similar vein is the discovery of previously unknown brain fiber tracts called the vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF). This new ‘brain corridor‘ is involved in visual processing. The research paper, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), says the VOF is important in the perception of words and faces amongst other things, and is ‘involved in the control of eye movements, attention, and motion perception. The main benefit of this finding is on our understanding of how the brain learns to read.

4. Newly discovered brain activity in deep coma

By Wojder (Own work(own work by uploader)) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons
By Wojder (Own work(own work by uploader)) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

The common knowledge is that the electrical activity of the comatose brain flatlines on the electroencephalogram (EEG)! This now appears to be a misconception as this report of previously unknown electrical brain activity in deep coma suggests. One journal reported this  as the discovery of life after brain death!

These electrical waves seen in deep coma are called Nu complexes are well-described in the original paper in PLoS One. This finding will alter our definition of brain death which relies very much on the absence of organised brain electrical activity. Another implication is for patients whose medical condition requires that they are put into a coma; this finding will potentially guide the anaesthetist to the best form of induced coma. 

5. Newly discovered brain cell type 

 

I thought I have learnt all the different types brain cells or neurones that exist right from medical school. The mysterious brain however has a joker at every corner. The report of the discovery of a new type of neurone should come as a surprise, but by now we have learnt not to be shocked by new brain discoveries. The strange thing about these cells, found in the hippocampus of mice brain, is that they have direct connections between their axons (the single long tail) and their dendrites (the smaller hair like projections). This connection by-passes the nerve body; this direct connection enhances the strength of the signals the cell generates. The reason for this peculiarity is not clear but, because the hippocampus is the seat of memory, I guess there are implications for cognitive disorders.

6. Newly discovered brain repair enhancers

We know that the brain repairs itself (neuroplasticity) and that brain fibers make new connections although very slowly. What is new is that these processes can be enhanced or accelerated by external agents. Two interesting substances recently reported are psilocybin and curry. Yes, healing mushrooms and spices!

It appears that Psilocybin (psychedelic mushrooms) can establish stable connections between parts of the brain which do not normally communicate well. The research on this is published under the title ‘Homological Scaffolds of Brain Functional Networks‘. The paper describes how psilocybin helps in nerve re-wiring with the potential implications for the treatment of depression and addiction. A bit paradoxical, using an addictive substance to treat addiction; but hey, this is the brain we are talking about!

"Curcuma longa roots" by Simon A. Eugster - Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Curcuma_longa_roots.jpg#/media/File:Curcuma_longa_roots.jpg
“Curcuma longa roots” by Simon A. Eugster – Own work. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons – https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Curcuma_longa_roots.jpg#/media/File:Curcuma_longa_roots.jpg

 

Curry on the other hand contains tumeric and this contains tumerone; tumerone has now been shown to help with nerve growth repair and it does this by causing proliferation of brain nerve cells. The research itself is titled ‘Aromatic-tumerone induces neural stem cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo‘. It is a study in rats, but are human brain very different? Potential benefits are all the neurodegenerative diseases which neurologists have singularly failed to reverse.

Enough food for thought but if you want to keep up with neuroscience findings, here are the most popular neuroscience blogs.

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4 thoughts on “6 exciting neuroscience discoveries that will shape neurology

  1. It’s possible that issues with the brain lymphatic system apply to me, but we haven’t been able to capture the problems on scans, at least those that are available to the general public. How far away are we from mapping this system in humans? I also have a couple of autoimmune diseases; is the research done on subjects (either human or animal) that have known immune system dysfunction?

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